Jainism: Jain Principles, Tradition and Practices
The most fundamental Jain prayer.
Jainism's fundamental concepts.
The concept of the soul.
State of existence of life.
Jain time cycle.
Punya and Pap
Good and bad consequences.
Theory of karma.
States of mind.
Reflections or meditations.
Inflow of karma.
Blocking of the inflow of karma.
Shedding of karma.
Antiquity of Jainism
Yakshas and Yakshinies
Lesser Jain deities.
Bathing in sacred stream of morality,
Every human mind everywhere purify,
Let life be full of self-control...
Self-discipline is ANUVRAT, by definition,
Voice of religion, devoid of class, colour or tradition,
Bringing in minds a revolution, by bits of resolution,
Let life be full of self-control ...1
Let friendship grow among nations, day-by-day,
Reconciliation replacing hatred, succeed coexistence with equality,
Means as well as ends becoming purer day-by-day,
Let life be full of self-control ... 2
Whether man or woman, student or teacher,
Worker or employer, all living with moral fervour,
Steadily narrowing the gap, between saying and doing,
Let life be full of self-control ... 3
Only by becoming Him, possible it is to worship Him,
Becoming honest alone, can be cross this ocean of sorrow,
Life of valour and chivalry, merged in non-violence, we shall follow,
Let life be full of self-control ... 4
Reform individual first, from individual, society,
Nation reforms on its own! Roar of Tulsi Anuvrat echoing all over
To codes and rules of humanity, dedicate, our body and soul,
Let life be full of self-control ... 5
श्रीम ह्रीम् इम् कुबेर लक्ष्मिई कमालाधारिन्यी धना अक्रशिन्यी स्वाहा
Om Shreem Hreem Im Kubera Lakshmiai Kamaladharinyai Dhana Akrashinyai savaahaa
Om Mahadeviaisa Vidmagahe
Vishnu Patneeysa deemahee
Thanno lakshmi prachothyyathu.
Rajaadhi Rajaaye Prasagna Sahiney
Namo Vayam Vai Shravanaaya Kurmahey
Samen Ka Maan Ka Mahaa ma yamagnam
Kaameshvaro vai Shravanothadhatu
Kuberaaya Vai Shravanaaya Mahaaraja Yenamaha.
Navpadarta or Nine Tattvas
1. Jiva - soul or living being (Consciousness)
2. Ajiva - non-soul or non-living substances
3. Aasrava - cause of the influx of karma
4. Bandh - bondage of karma
5. Punya - virtue
6. Papa - vice or sin
7. Samvara - blocking or arrest of the influx of karma
8. Nirjara - shedding of the accumulated karma
9. Moksha - total liberation from karma
1. Jiva (soul) :
Jiva is of two kinds. The true Jiva which is absolutely free from karmic material conditions is called Nirupadi Jiva or pure self. This Nirupadi Jiva which is absolutely free from foreign matter is also called Parmatma. The self which issociation with the upadic conditions is not pure self. This impure self is called Jivatma or Smsara Jiva. The intrinsic nature of Atma or the self is Chetnana or Consciousness.
2. Ajiva (Non-Soul or non - living):
3. Asrava (Cause of the influx of karma)
Asrava is the cause which leads to the influx of good and evil karma which lead to the bondage of the soul. Asrava may be described as attraction in the soul toward sense objects. The following are causes of influx of good and evil karma:Mithyatva - ignoranceAvirati - lack of self restraintKasaya - passions like anger, conceit, deceit, and lustPramada - unawareness or unmindful nessYoga - activities of mind, speech, and body In addition to the above causes, the five great sins; violence, untruth, stealing, sensual indulgence, and attachment to worldlyobjects are also the cause of the influx of karmas.
4. Bandha (Bondage of karma)-
Bandha is the attachment of karmic matter (karma pudgala) to the soul. The soul has had this karmic matter bondage from eternity. This karmic body is known as the karmana body or causal body.Karmic matter is a particular type of matter which is attracted to the soul because of its ignorance, lack of self restraint, passions, unmindful ness, activities of body, mind, and speech.The soul, which is covered by karmic matter, continues acquiring new karma from the universe and exhausting old karma into the universe through the above mentioned actions at every moment.Because of this continual process of acquiring and exhausting karma particles, the soul has to pass through the cycles of births and deaths, and experiencing pleasure and pain. So under normal circumstances the soul can not attain freedom from karma, and hence liberation. Karmic matter attaching to the soul assumes four forms:
Prakriti bandha - Type of karma
Sthiti bandha - Duration of karma
Anubhava bandha - Intensity of attachment of karma
Pradesa bandha - Quantity of karma
When karmic matter attaches to the soul, karma will obscure its essential nature of: perfect knowledge, vision, bliss, power, eternal existence, non-corporeal, and equanimity. Prakriti bandha is classified into eight categories, according to the particular attribute of the soul that it obscures.
Jnana-varaniya: It covers the soul's power of perfect knowledge.
Darasna-varaniya: It covers the soul's power of perfect visions.Vedniya: It obscures the blissful nature of the soul, and thereby produces pleasure and pain.
Mohniya: It generates delusion in the soul in regard to its own true nature, and makes it identify itself with other substances.
Ayu: It determines the span of life in one birth, thus obscuring its nature of eternal existence.Nama: It obscures the non-corporeal existence of the soul, and produces the body with its limitations, qualities, faculties, etc.
Gotra: It obscures the souls characteristics of equanimity, and determines the caste, family, social standing, etc.
Antaraya: It obstructs the natural energy of the soul and prevents it from attaining liberation. It also prevents a living being from doing something good and enjoyable.
Ghati and Aghati karmas:
The above eight karmas are also categorized into two groups, known as ghati and aghati karmas.
Jnana-varaniya, Darasna-varaniya, Mohaniya, and Antaraya karmas are called Ghati karmas (dangerous karmas) because they obscure the true nature of the soul.
Ayu, Nama, Gotra, and Vedniya karmas are called Aghati karmas. They do not obscure the original nature of the soul. However, they associate with the body of the soul. Hence they can not destroyed by the soul so long as it possesses a body.When a person destroys all of his ghati karmas, at that time he attains keval-jnana. However, he continues to live as a human being because none of his aghati karmas are destroyed. He can only attain liberation after all of his aghati karmas are destroyed. Hence he attains liberation after his death.When a person attains keval-jnana, he is known as an Arihant. If an Arihant establishes the four fold order of Monks, Nuns, Sravaka, (male layperson), and Sravika (female layperson) then the Arihant is called a Tirthankara. Other Arihantas are known as ordinary Kevali. After Nirvana (death) both Tirthankaras and ordinary Kevalis are called Siddhas. All Siddhas are unique individuals, but they all possess perfect knowledge, vision, power, and bliss. Hence from the qualities and attributes point of view all Siddhas are same.
When karmic matter attaches to the soul the duration of the attachment is determined at that time according to the intensity or dullness of the soul's passions.Anubhava Bandha or Rasa BandhaWhat fruits the karmic matter will produce is determined at the time of attachment by varying degrees of passions.
The quantum of karmic matter that is drawn towards the soul for attachment is determined by the intensity or dullness of the soul's action.
5. Punya (Virtue)
The influx of karmic matter due to good activities of the mind, body, and speech with the potential of producing pleasant sensations is called punya or virtue.Activities such as offering food, drink, shelter, purifying thought, physical and mental happiness, etc. result in producing punya karmic matter.
6. PAPA (Sin)
The influx of karmic matter due to evil activities of the mind, body, and speech with the potential of producing unpleasant sensations is called papa or sin.Activities such as violence, untruth, theft, unchastely, attachment to objects, anger, conceit, deceit, lust, etc. result in producing papa karmic matter.
7. Samvara (Arrest of Karma)
The method which arrests fresh karma from coming into the soul is samvara. This process is a reverse of asrava. It can be accomplished by constant practice of:
- restraint of mind, body, and speech
- religious meditation
- conquest of desire
- forgiveness, tenderness, purity, truth, austerity, renunciation, unattachment, and chastity.
Nirjara is the exhaustion of karmic matter already acquired.
- The karmas exhaust themselves by producing their results when it is time for them to do so.
- Unless they are exhausted before they are mature and start producing results, it becomes difficult to be free. By that time, new karmic matter begins to pour in.
- Therefore, it becomes necessary for one who desires final liberation to exhaust all karmas before maturity. This is called nirjara. Nirjara is to be done by rigorous austerities.
Anasan - complete abstinence of eating and drinking
Alpahara - reduction in the quantity of food one normally eats
Ichhanirodha - control of desire for food and material things
Rasatyaga - complete abstinence of eating or drinking juicy and tasty foods such as honey, alcohol, butter, milk, tea, sweets, juice etc. (no attachments to the taste of the foods)
Kayaklesa - control of passions by discipline
Samlinata - sitting in a lonely place in due posture with senses withdrawn
Prayaschita - repentance for the breach of vows
Vinaya - appropriate behavior towards a teacher
Vaiyavrata - selfless service to the suffering and deserving
Svadhyaya - studying/listening of religious scriptures
Bhutsarga - non-attachment to the body
Subha-dhyana - religious meditation
Moksha is the liberation of the living being (soul) after complete exhaustion or elimination of all karmas. A liberated soul regains totally its original attributes of perfect knowledge, vision, power, and bliss. It climbs to the top of Lokakas and remains there forever in its blissful and unconditional existence. It never returns again into the cycles of birth, life, and death. This state of the soul is the liberated or perfect state, and this is called "Nirvana."
"Mahavira proclaimed in India that religion is a reality and not a mere social convention. It is really true that salvation can not be had by merely observing external ceremonies. Religion cannot make any difference between man and man." - Rabindranath Tagore
"We learn from scriptures (Sashtras) and commentaries that Jainism is existing from beginning less time. This fact is indisputable and free from difference of opinion. There is much historical evidence on this point." - Lokamanya Bala Gangadhar Tilak
"There is nothing wonderful in my saying that Jainism was in existence long before the Vedas were composed." - Dr. S. Radhakrishnan, Prev. President of India
"Truly speaking, Jainism is an independent and original religion, for it is neither Hinduism nor Vedic religion, but of course it is an aspect of Indian life, culture, and philosophy." - Shri Jawaharlal Nehru
"I am not Rama. I have no desire for material things. Like Jina I want to establish peace within myself." -Yoga Vasishta, Chapter 15, Sloka 8 the saying of Rama
"O Arhan! You are equipped with the arrow of Vastuswarpa, the law of teaching, and the ornaments of the four infinite qualities. O Arhan! You have attained omniscient knowledge in which the universe is reflected. O Arhan! You are the protector of all the Souls (Jivas) in the world. O Arhan! The destroyer of kama (lust)! There is no strong person equal to you." -Yajur Veda, Chapter 19, Mantra 14
"What would be the condition of the Indian Sanskrit literature if the contribution of the Jains were removed? The more I study Jain literature the more happy and wonder struck I am." - Dr. Hertel, Germany
"Jainism is of a very high order. Its important teachings are based upon science. The more the scientific knowledge advances the more that Jain teachings will be proven." -L. P. Tessetori, Italy
"The Jains have written great masterpieces only for the benefit of the world." - Dr. Hertel, Germany
HOW CAN WE LIVE IN THIS WORLD WITH OUT TAKING LIFE AND CAUSING VIOLENCE?
O Jinas! What a wonderful teaching you have given us! You have taught us to take only that food which is innocent, benign, and healthy, because it has not been procured through causing bloodshed.
01. Bhagavan Rishabhadev
02. Bhagavan Ajitnath
03. Bhagavan Sambhavanath
04. Bhagavan Abhinandannath
05. Bhagavan Sumatinath
06. Bhagavan Padmaprabha
07. Bhagavan Suparshvanath
08. Bhagavan Chandraprabha
09. Bhagavan Pushpadanta
10. Bhagavan Sitalanath
11. Bhagavan Sreyamsanath
12. Bhagavan Vasupujya
13. Bhagavan Vimalanath
14. Bhagavan Anantanath
15. Bhagavan Dharmanath
16. Bhagavan Santinath
17. Bhagavan Kunthunath
18. Bhagavan Aranath
19. Bhagavan Mallinath
20. Bhagavan Munisuvrata
21. Bhagavan Naminath
22. Bhagavan Neminath
23. Bhagavan Prashvanath
24. Bhagavan Mahavira
(1st Jain Tirthankara)
Bhagavan Rishabha the first Thirthankara's life is repeated verbatim also in the non -Jaina puranas, for example Bhagavatha purna fifth skanda, in Vishnupurna and Vayupurana. All these Hindu puranas maintain that Lord Rishabha preached the doctrine of Ahimsa after performing yoga for several years.
Name ............................ Rishabha nath (Adinath)
Father's Name ........ Nabhiraja
Mother's Name .......... .Marudevi
Birth Place ... ............... Ayodhya
Birth Thithi ... ...............Chaitra krishna. 8
Diksha Thithi ... ...........Chaitra krishna. 8
Kevalgyan Thithi.. ......falgun krishna. 8
Naksharta .. .................Uttrashadha
Diksha Sathi ... ......... ..4000
Shadhak Jeevan ... . ..1,00,000 purva Age
Lived ... ................ 84,00,000 purva
Lakshan Sign ... ....... .Vrushabha (Bull)
Neervan Place ... ...... .Asthapad
Neervan Sathi ... ........ 10000
Neervan Thithi ... ....... .Magh Krishna 14
Colour ..................... Golden-Yellow
According to jaina tradition, he wa a hero of the Ikshvaku family Ayodhya. His father was King Nabhiraja and his mother Queen Marudevi. He was married to Sumangla and Sunanda. Sumangla gave birth to Bharat, who later became a Chakravarti king . Sunanda gave birth to a child who came to be known as Bahubali. Adinath had one hundred sons and two daughters, who were named Brahmi and Sundari. It is believed that all civilization developed from the teachings of Adinath. He taught people how they could obtain food by tilling the soil, that they should take up to agriculture for the production of food. He taught some other people to carry this agriculture produce to different peoples and supply to those that were in need. He again set apart a numbered of able-bodied men for the purpose of defense. Thus he was the first king to establish the institutions of marriage, agriculture, the arts, and weaponry. He ruled for thousands of years and after he divided his kingdom among his sons and departed to take up an ascetic way of life to perform Tapas. After the practice of Tapas for several years, he attained Kevalagyana or Omniscience. When Adinath renounced his kingdom, thousands of people followed him into the ascetic life. Whenever they went for alms, people offered them gold, jewels, ornaments, etc. But no one offered them food. Thus, many of his followers could not tolerate the starvation. They began asking for food, and then they left to form their own groups. This was the beginning of many sects. (According to the Jain faith, Tirthankaras remained silent until they achieved perfection.) Adinath also went without food for an entire year. Then he went to his grandson Shreyans kingdom (Hastinapur). His grandson offered him sugarcane juice, which he accepted. Hastinapur is still considered a holy place, and even today Jains make pilgrimages to this site to break ritual fasts (with sugarcane juice). After becoming enlightened (Perfect), He broke his silence and preached for many years, telling how to escape the cycle of birth and death and achieve eternal bliss. Bhagwan Adinath achieved Nirvana on the mountain of Kailash in the Himalayas when he was in complete Samadhi. The symbol of Adinath is a Bull (Rishabh) so he is known as Rishabha Dev. The discoveries resulting from the excavations of Harappa and Mohenjodara, we have nude images of a yogi considered to be idols used for worship by the people of the Indus Valley Civilization. Also the symbol of bull is found in abundance in coins and seals belonging to that period. Hence it will be consistent to maintain that the religious life of people of Indus Valley Civilization must have been associated with the Rishabha cult which must have been prevalent throughout the land from Himalayas down to Cape Comorian and further South in Lanka.
Namo Loye Savva Sahunam
Eso Panch Namukkaro
Mangalanam Cha Savvesim
Padhamam Havai Mangalam
The Navkar Mantra is the most important mantra in Jainism. While reciting the Navkar Mantra, we are bowing down with respect Arihantas, Siddhas, Acharya(heads of sadhus and sadhvis), Upadhyaya (those who teach scriptures to sadhus and sadhvis), Sadhus (monks, who have voluntarily given up social, economical and family relationships) and Sadhvis (nuns, who have voluntarily given up social, economical and family relationships). Collectively, they are called Panch Parmesthi (five supreme spiritual people). In this mantra we worship their virtues rather than worshipping any one particular person or Tirthankar. This mantra is also called Namaskar or Namokar Mantra as we are bowing down.
The word Arihanta is made up of two words: 1) Ari, meaning enemies, and 2)hanta, meaning destroyer of the enemies. These enemies are inner desires known as passions such as anger, ego, deception, and greed within us. When a person (soul) wins over these inner enemies he/she is called Arihanta. Arihanta destroys the four ghati karmas namely Jnanavarniya (knowledge blocking) Karma, Darshanavarniya (perception blocking) Karma, Mohniya (passion causing) Karma and Antaraya (obstacle causing) Karma. Arihanta attains: 1) Kevaljnan, perfect knowledge due to the destruction of all Jnanavarniya Karmas, 2) Kevaldarshan, perfect perception due to the destruction of all Darshanavarniya karmas, 3) becomes passionless due to the destruction of all Mohniya Karmas, and 4) gains infinite power due to the destruction of all Antaraya Karmas.
Siddhas are the liberated souls. They are no longer among us because they have completely ended the cycle of birth and death. They have reached the ultimate highest state, salvation. They do not have any karmas, and they do not collect any new karmas. This state of true freedom is called Moksha.
Acharyas carry the message of Jina. They are our spiritual leaders. Acharyas must have to do in-depth study and achieve mastery of the Jain scriptures (Ägams). In addition to acquiring a high level of spiritual excellence, they have the ability to lead the monks and nuns. They know various languages with a sound knowledge of other philosophies and religions of the area and the world.
The title Upadhyayas is given to those Sadhus who have acquired a special knowledge of the Ägams and philosophical systems. They teach Jain scriptures to sadhus and sadhvis.
SADHUS AND SADHVIS
When householders become detached from the worldly aspects of life and get the desire for spiritual uplift (and not worldly uplift), they give up their worldly lives and become sadhus (monk) or sadhvis (nun). A male person is called sadhu, and a female person is called sadhvi. At the time of Deeksha, the sadhu or sadhvi voluntarily accepts to obey following five major vows for the rest of his/her life:
1. Commitment of Total Ahimsa (non-violence)-not to commit any type of violence.
2. Commitment of Total Satya (truth)-not to indulge in any type of lie or falsehood.
3. Commitment of Total Asteya (non-stealing)-not to take anything unless it is given.
4. Commitment of Total Brahmacharya (celibacy)-not to indulge in any sensual activities
5. Commitment of Total Aparigraha (non-possessiveness)-not to acquire more than what is needed to maintain day to day life.